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YUZAK - by Lesley Zore

A language for pan-Indo-European communication.


About the author

How to pronounce "Lesley", author's first name:

l - voiced alveolar lateral approximant

ɛ (stressed) - open-mid front unrounded vowel

z - voiced alveolar sibilant fricative

l - voiced alveolar lateral approximant

i - close front unrounded vowel

How to pronounce "Zore", author's last name:

z - voiced alveolar sibilant fricative

ɒ - open back rounded vowel

r - voiced alveolar trill

ɛ (stressed) - open-mid front unrounded vowel

You can simply call me "Lesley"; I even had some people call me "Les".

Some goals of the language

- Phonetic inventory must be at least partially compatible with big Indo-European languages (Perfected, now it is compatible with the Indo-European family generally).

- Phonetic inventory must be between 15 and 25 consonants and vowels in total (Perfected).

- Word formation must be clear and systematic (Perfected).

- Must be non-gendered (Perfected).

- Must have vocabulary adapted generally from Indo-European languages (Perfected).

- Must name countries closely to how locals do, if possible (Perfected).

- Not taking words derived from others into account, it must have at least 400 base words (Perfected; surpassed 432 on November 2, 2020).

- Taking words derived from others into account (except for verb derivation and singularity-duality-plurality deviations), it must have at least 1500 words (Perfected; surpassed 2058 on November 2, 2020).

- Taking words derived from others into account, but not negated words, it must have at least 4000 words (Perfected; surpassed 8622 on November 2, 2020).

- Taking all words, including simple derivations and negations into account, it must have at least 8000 words (Perfected, surpassed 17244 on November 2, 2020).

What is taken from where

The inspiration for a consonant-based vowel infix system was taken from the Semitic languages. However, it is adapted for Indo-European users.

Structuring of verbs was taken from Slavic languages but has been simplified to

avoid difficulties. It has been degendered, as well.

The need for easier expression of objectivity, politeness or condemnation has been taken from English, though the concept was approached differently.

Diminutive and Augmentative were taken from Slovenian and German.

So far, the glossary has been informed by English, German, Russian, Bulgarian, Lithuanian, Italian, Spanish, Latin, Slovenian, Hindi, Gujarati, Armenian, Portugese.

The system of adverbs having to do with position in a 3d grid comes from programming; though z is usually used to symbolize height, here that is y. Thus, there is x, y and z. (X is ks)

The inspiration for a structural 27-sized system of pronouns of complete logic came from programming (Python 3).

The idea of pronouns having a slight case was adopted from English, though this is common in many languages.

Phonetic compatibility

Yuzak is phonetically compatible with most major Indo-European languages. It is fully compatible with English, Hindi, Spanish, French, Bengali, Russian, Portugese, Urdu, German, Marathi, Punjabi, Italian, Gujarati, Persian, Bhojpuri, Polish, Odia, Maithili, Ukrainian, Nigerian Pidgin, Sindhi, Nepali, Romanian, Dutch, Pashto, Magahi, Saraiki, Afrikaans, Sinhala, Chhattisgarhi, Assamese, Kurdish, Bavarian, Czech, Greek, Chittagonian, Swedish, Deccani, Sadri, Cameroonian Pidgin English, Sylheti.

Yuzak is thus phonetically fully compatible with 41 biggest Indo-European languages. I could not find sources on further ranking of languages belonging to this group by their number of speakers.

Yuzak is additionally fully compatible with Latin, Ancient Greek, Sanskirt and Esperanto. It is also compatible with Slovene, Serbian, Croatian, Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian.

Sources for the list of biggest Indo-European languages are List of languages by total number of speakers of Wikipedia, retrieved in late September 2020 and VisualCapitalist's Ranked: The 100 Most Spoken Languages Around the World. Note that I am, however, anti-capitalistic.

Note that for French… "The French rhotic has a wide range of realizations: the voiced uvular fricative [ʁ], also realised as an approximant, with a voiceless positional allophone [χ], the uvular trill [ʀ], the alveolar trill [r], and the alveolar tap [ɾ]. These are all recognised as the phoneme /r/,[5] but [r] and [ɾ] are considered dialectal. The most common pronunciation is [ʁ] as a default realisation, complemented by a devoiced variant [χ] in the positions before or after a voiceless obstruent or at the end of a sentence." - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is allowed for other languages which only have alternatives for r as well.

Note that Bengali speakers and others are given the pass to pronounce j/y as dʒ if necessary.

Note that Marathi phonology does not allow for voice f itself, so let it be known to Marathi speakers as ph. This stands for any other languages with the same issue, like Bhojpuri.


IPA consonant table

The goal is not to make phonetics seem naturally evolved, but functional.

Theoretical Form: IPA-mark [ romanization ]

Example Form: m [ m ]











m [ m ]

n [ n ]


p [p], b [ b ]

t [ t ], d [ d ]

k [ k ], g [ g ]

sibilant affricate

sibilant fricative

f, pʰ [f, v]****

s / z / c [ s / c / z ]*

non-sibilant fricative


j / dʒ [ y / j ]**


r / ʁ [ r ]***

lateral approximant

l [ l ]

* - some speakers may choose to pronounce that voice with deviation; ts and tz and dz and s and c and some others are interchangeable. However, it still behaves as a s.. Spelling C and Z and S is interchangeable in all words. However, spelling S is suggested in many cases to guarantee indo-european aesthetics. Overall, spelling and pronouncing it "s" is suggested. However, if a word is explecitely defined with a "C" we suggest usage of sound "c/ts", but it is not all that important.

** - some speakers, especially monolingual Bengali speakers, may decide to pronounce the letter j as dʒ, however, pronunciation j is preferred.

*** - pronunciations r and ʁ are both valid, but pronunciation r is preferred.

**** - pronunciations ph and f are both valid, but f is preferred.

Wherever there are multiple options, all options are interchangeable. One is possibly preferred - if so, such a word is written down in this walkthrough. However, usage of correct letters in such situations are expected only in formal situations. Then, because both the speaker and the listener must know the correct version, pronunciation can be derived from spelling and vice versa.

IPA vowel table

Theoretical form: IPA-mark [ romanization ]

Example form: i [i ]





i [ i ]

u [ u ]


e [ e ]*

o [ o ]**


a [ a ]***

* - some speakers may choose to pronounce that voice with deviation; e and ɛ and ɘ and ə and ɜ and œ and ɛ and æ and ɶ are interchangeable. However, it still behaves as an e.

** - some speakers may choose to pronounce that voice with deviation; o and o̞ and ɔ and ɒ are interchangeable. However, it still behaves like an o.

*** - some speakers may choose to pronounce that voice with deviation; ä and ɐ and a and ɑ are interchangeable, but they all behave as an a.

Wherever there are multiple options, all options are interchangeable. One is possibly preferred - if so, such a word is written down in this walkthrough. However, usage of correct letters in such situations are expected only in formal situations. Then, because both the speaker and the listener must know the correct version, pronunciation can be derived from spelling and vice versa.

Syllable stress

Geographic, or number syllables, are not taken into consideration in the syllable count.

All words developed through word formation from roots have their last syllable stressed. If they are defined otherwise than through word formation, their second syllable is stressed - unless they are numbers, then their second-to-last syllable is stressed.

Suffixes and prefixes are not taken in consideration when counting the syllables for finding syllable stress. For example, "sabor" is stressed as "sabór", but so is "sibéres" or "sabórinters". Even "ksasabór" or "ksasabórinters" follow that rule.

Sentence stress

In sentences which are questions requesting information, stress is on the word which has the ksa(r) prefix, demanding more information.

In sentences which are questions requesting confirmation, the final word is stressed and has higher pitch.

Other sentences have their first verb stressed if a verb is present indeed. If a verb is not present, the first word in the sentence is stressed.

Phonetic strategies

Most commonly, words are formed of syllables which are all "CV" syllables, except for the last one (coda), which is "CVC". This is true for all words generated through word formation out of roots.

Otherwise, any form of syllable is allowed. If one has trouble pronouncing a consonant cluster, an "e" may be pronounced between the two consonants, as long as that does not make the text possess a new meaning.

Words, derived from word formation from roots, may be pronounced without the last consonant, if the speaker is so tired, if and only if that would not change the meaning of the text.

When there are two one-syllable words (ex. "La es", "Ya es"...), stress falls on the first one-syllable word of them.

When there are three or one-syllable words (ex. "Ye es Yi", "Ya es ye"...), stress falls on the last one-syllable word of them.

Phonetic definability - spelling

One may pronounce the spelling of letters the following way:

- consonants: a[consonant]a (ex. ana) or [consonant]a (ex. na)

- wovels: ny[vowel] (ex. nya)

Word Formation


Word formation is conducted using three or more consonants.

For example, let our three consonants be B, C, and D.

Given vowels A, E, I, O, U, we can form 25 words by infixing those vowels between the consonants as long as all places must be filled by any vowel, which can repeat. However, some of these combinations can be unnatural to pronounce in accordance to certain consonants, thereby they have been emitted. Taking some inspiration from Semitic languages, this is the chart of valid combinations I have come up with.

BACAD - General Adjective / General Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives, Pre-Defined/Foreign words)

BACED - Type Adjective (to differentiate sort by name, not attributes inside a sort, nor to describe sorts)

BACID - Objective Attributive Adjective (see Attributive Adjective Valuing)

BACOD - Positive Attributive Adjective (see Attributive Adjective Valuing)

BACOD (negative)->BACOOD (pronunciation too hard)->BACOJOD - Negative Attributive Adjective (see Attributive Adjective Valuing)

BECED - Verb (see Verb)

BECOD - Used to define or declare a new root

BICED - Neutral Noun (See Noun Differentiation)

BICID - Greater Noun (See Noun Differentiation)
 BICID (minor)->BICIID (pronounciation too hard)->BICIJID - Minor Noun (See Diminutive and Augmentative)

BOCAD - Unjustified Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives)

BOCED - Emotional/Wishful/Psychological Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives)

BOCID - Bodily Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives)

BOCOD - Consumable Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives)

BOCUD - Temporary Possessive Adjective (see Possessive Adjectives)

BUCAD - Empty poetic form (see Emptiness)

BUCED - Panroot Form; encompansies all forms derived from a root

Thus creating 17 combinations of tripluscontonental root options.

Given that verbs have 60 combinations each (number, tense, person), that is 76 combinations. However, because all forms of a verb are a single word, we may still count it as 17 words being derived from a single root. Unless? :)

Certain words may be made up of more than three consonants. For example, let us temporarily define consonants BGDLM as something with "house". Thereby, "BEGEDELOM defines house". As a (neutral) noun, house would be "BEGEDILEM". As you can see, any word made up of more than three consonants is of the form BEBE...BEBEBEKAKAK, where K are last three consonants and B are all other consonants. Only vowels which are positioned in between last three consonants are then used to differentiate forms according to the Word Formation. Other vowels are E.

Words, which cannot be defined out of a verb, adjective, noun or other form defined within the word formation table above are defined separately, and do not change. Such words are, for example, English "and", pronouns, etc. They are defined in a different chapter than the consonant-system words.


Let's temporarily define ZLN as contonants forming read; so to say, "ZELON forms read"; as _E_O_ is used to define a root.

In this case, a verb form of ZLN is ZELEN. Let us observe verb formation.

As ZELEN would only be a verb of "read" with no specific attributes, let us discover how to create a verb. First we need to "glagolize" the ZELEN; to further differentiate it from the similar ZELON we first make the second E long, thus forming ZELEEN. Furthermore, ZELEEN is hard from differentiate from ZELEN, so let's insert an R. We have just formed ZELEREN.

ZELEREN can then be transformed further. First, the person can be altered.

ZELERAN - 1st person ("I read now")

ZELEREN - 2nd person ("You read now")

ZELERIN - 3rd person ("They read now")

ZELERON - impersonal form ("To read now")

As you may note, ZELEREN moved from 1st to "4th" person together with the letter in latin alphabet: A to O.

Furthermore, let's alter the number. This will as well be shown in the Numerical section, but let's do it here for the verb as well.

ZELERAN - Singular ("I eat")

ZELERANET - Expresses that the number is not a natural number ("Zero of us eat"), or in rare occasions used as Dual ("The two of us eat")

ZELERANES - Plural ("We eat")

Whenever the -t/-s suffix is attached, we can instead attach the -et/-es suffix if that is appropriate to pronunciation (see Numerical section)

Let's additionally alter the (time) tense of the verb ZELEREN.

ZELELEN - Pre-past (past perfect) (used rarely) ("You had eaten")
ZELEGEN - Past (any) ("You ate" (in past))
 ZELEREN - Present (any) ("You eat" (in present))

ZELESEN - Future (any) ("You will eat")

ZELESESEN - Further Future (used rarely) ("Later on, you will eat").

Foreign names and foreign / predefined words cannot be made into a verb for they either have a verb as well in whatever language they originate from.

Attribute Adjective Valuing

As seen in the Basics of the Word Formation, attributive adjectives can have value, either positive, negative or objective.

This can be explained in English as well. As of writing this, English is a very polite language where speakers do their best to find the softest and the most polite wording of what they want to convey. That is not a problem, however, it does take a lot of time and effort. Thereby, this language has simplified attributive adjective valuing.

Let us take a look at Attributive Adjective Valuing on the case of the world "deadly". I shall temporarily define the consonant group KGB as to do with "death". As shown in Basics and Verbs, we define that as "KEGOB is deadly".

KAGIB - objective for "deadly". For example, a specialist geopolitical news agency not interested in a victory of either side in a war may say: "Country used a deadly weapon"; Country used a KAGIB weapon.

KAGOB - positive for "deadly". For exaple, a war marshall may say with excitement: "This new weapon is deadly"; This new weapon is KAGOB.

KAGOB (negative)->KAGOOB (too hard to pronounce)->KAGOJOB - negative for deadly. For example, a parent may say this with care: "Look out, electricity is deadly"; Look out, electricity is KAGOJOB.

Foreign names and words can only be formed into adjectives using the form(s) defined in the Pre-defined / Foreign names.

Numerals Section

Let us take an example of a dollar. One can have a dollar, dollars, or none. I will temporarily define DLN as "dollar". Thus, "DELON defines dollar", but as a noun, DLN is DILEN.

DILEN - one dollar

DILENET - an amount of dollars which is not a natural (countable) number; that is, dilent is negative, zero, decimal, irrational or further not a positive whole. Sometimes, dilent can be used to signify two dollars.

DILENES - a plural of dollars

However, adding -s/-t can cause pronunciation issues. For example, if BND was used, it would be extensively difficult to say "Binedt" (BINEDT). Thereby, after any letter impropper for joining into a cluster with -t/-s, letter "E" can be inserted, making the suffix -s/-t/-es/-et. For example:



Letters which are proper for being joined with -s/-t are all vowels.

This can also be used to appropriate foreign names into a numeral form.

Numerals as the literal way of writing out numbers will be arrived at in a seperate part.

Possesive Adjectives

For this section, I will define KLG as "student". Thereby, "KELOG defines student".

KALAG - "student's", can be used to replace all others.

KOLAG - "student's", unjustified (unjustified/private) property

KOLEG - "student's", emotional (psychological) property

KOLIG - "student's", bodily property (self, physical needs)

KOLOG - "student's", consumable property (goods, personal property)

KOLUG - "student's", temporary property (that which is borrowed)

Foreign pre-defined words cannot be formed into possessive adjectives that way. They have a seperate system, noted in the Pre-defined / Foreign Names section.

Pre-Defined / Foreign Names

Of course, we cannot just rename everyone and everything to fit into this word formation. For example, my name is Lesley. Having a consonant cluster, it requires attention.

There is no need to create nouns, verbs etc. from foreign names or words, unless those are already present. Thereby, let us define possessive adjectives for foreign names, on the example of Lenin.

LENINI - "Lenin's", neutral (Lenin's toothbrush)

LENINOJO - "Lenin's", negative (Lenin's mistakes)

LENINO - "Lenin's", positive (Lenin's achievements)

In some cases, such a pronunciation is hard. When the core word ends with a vowel, use -ti/-jo/-to instead of -i/-ojo/-o. For example…

HOPPETI - "Hoppe's", neutral (Hoppe's toothbrush)

HOPPEJO - "Hoppe's", negative (Hoppe's conservatism)

HOPPETO - "Hoppe's", positive (Hoppe's retirement)

Diminutive and Augmentative

In certain languages, words have a diminutive form, for example in Slovenian or German. From those we have taken the idea of the feature, and we came up with the idea of the opposing augmentative, already present in certain languages.

Something can be minor, major or seen neutrally. For example, in Slovenian, a table is "miza". However, a small table is "mizica". We will also follow a similar idea, but we will be using infixes to show the size valuation.

I will temporarily define "RKT" as the root of "trouble", thus "REKOT defines trouble". RIKET is then the noun for "trouble".

Thus, we can form the following forms of RIKET to define our stance on the size of such a thing.

RIKET - neutral form, used to replace other forms if necessary ("trouble")

RIKIT - greater form, used to convey bigger size ("big trouble")

RIKIT (minor)->RIKIIT (too hard to pronounce)->RIKIJIT - minor form, used to express smaller size ("small trouble")

In general, pre-defined foreign words in this language cannot be minored or majored using the scale above.

Word negation

Words can be negated by supplying them with the prefix nye- (or nyet- if the word starts with a vowel).

For example, "famig" is "friendly". Thereby, "nyefamig" is "unfriendly/enemy-like".

This prefix can also be used on words which generally do not follow the Word Formation system.

For example, "si" is "yes". Thereby, "nyesi" is "no." However, this example is utter nonsense because we already have the word "nye", meaning "no." However, Yuzak theoretically allows for "nyenyenyesi" to mean "no".

This can also be used on the verb "to be", which translates to Yuzak as "es" (or "yeseros" for long). Thereby, "nyetes" means "not to be" (or "isn't, aren't,..."). However, "nyetes" can also be spelled as "nye es" in a sentence if preferred (as nye is also used to negate parts of sentences).

Note that while nye in a sentence does refute information (as seen in the Grammar section), it does not reverse it. Only "nye-" as a prefix can negate information.

For example, "Yi es nye sabir" = "She is not good" (Maybe she is neutral in effect); while "Yi es nyesabir" = "She is bad/ungood".

Name of the language

The name for this language comes from the russian term for "language", Yazik. However, to make it a proper word, vowels are replaced with U and A, forming YUZAK. This is the poetic version of the root, used to symbolise the whole number of root derivation possibilities. In this very case, it has become the name for the language. Name YUZAK also uses vowels U and A, in this shape symbolizing the word lingua. I hope the presence or the leters U and A will be enough to remind non-slavic speakers of the word YUZAK through Lingua. Yuzak is also derived from the Yazik word Yuza, with suffix -k, meaning the language of human civilization. Know that such naming is a joke. Yuzak does not claim to be a world IAL, it is an Indo-European IAL.


Sentence-initial words have their initial letter capitalized.

Personal names, countries, languages and words derived from those three are capitalized.

There is an alternative way of writing where we capitalize each initial letter, use spaces only in front of letters that would be capitalized by default, and following sentence-final punctuations.


Words in the two glossaries here are sorted as one may wish to learn them, not by any numero-alphabetical order.

The format used presents:

[word in Yuzak] = [English version] (additional comments or explanations)

Glossary of roots to be used with the root system

  1. BKR = enjoy

  2. BNN = banana

  3. BNNY = yellow

  4. BNT = nice

  5. DBT = debate

  6. DLS = part

  7. DMKRT = democracy

  8. DNCR = denounce

  9. DRV = tree

  10. DTL = detailed

  11. DYR = law, lawful...

  12. FCL = easy (Facil in spanish)

  13. FMG = friend

  14. FLN = exception

  15. FTR = wind

  16. GDN = year

  17. GFL = feel

  18. GRK = hot, very warm

  19. KBS = food

  20. KLY = potassium

  21. KLYN = pink

  22. KLR = color, colour

  23. KLS = way (metaphoric; this is the way of doing something)

  24. KLT = cold, very cool (temperature)

  25. KMN = come

  26. KMNL = commune

  27. KMNLM = communism

  28. KPTL = capital

  29. KPTLM = capitalism

  30. KRK = idol

  31. KRN = current, present, now

  32. KRS = oil, kerosine (as general supply, not chemically exact)

  33. KRSV = blood

  34. KRSVN = red

  35. KSRN = house

  36. KTR = equator

  37. LBRT = liberty

  38. LNG = language

  39. LTR = word

  40. LTY = lithium

  41. MDFKT = modification, ammandmant, additional correction

  42. MGT = can

  43. MGN = like

  44. MKN = make, work (towards something) (not as job)

  45. MNG = very, a lot

  46. MNRK = monarchy

  47. MPR = map

  48. MRT = death

  49. MRY = sea

  50. MSC = moon

  51. MST = month

  52. NBV = sky

  53. NBVN = blue

  54. NMR = number

  55. NZR = look

  56. PDR = power

  57. PKL = little

  58. PLS = pole (northern, southern pole) (not a stick!)

  59. PPL = person

  60. PRL = talk

  61. PPT = traveller

  62. PRLL = parallelity

  63. PRS = leave, go

  64. PSS = have

  65. PZV = call (either using phone, address someone, summon someone to answer)

  66. RBN = ruby (Ruby, rubi or rubin in most languages; becomes "riben")

  67. RBT = work, job, labour (not as make)

  68. RKL = get, obtain

  69. RMNR = remain

  70. RMF = remove

  71. RND = human

  72. RNT = shit

  73. RPBLK = republic (repebilek)

  74. RPZ = resting

  75. RYN = water

  76. RYNY = ray, beam

  77. RST = way (literal; this is the way to the city of Moscow)

  78. SBR = good, goodness

  79. SDR = sweat

  80. SGRMN = suggestion, proposal

  81. SLL = island

  82. SLS = sun

  83. SNV = snow

  84. SNVN = white

  85. SPL = fail

  86. SPSB = thanking (use sepasib as "thanks" - same as "thankfully")

  87. SRK = big, much, lots of

  88. SRKR = governmental state

  89. SYTR = closed, fastened

  90. SYY = shine

  91. SYZ = union

  92. CTR = search, look for

  93. STRN = strontium

  94. STRNN = purple

  95. TBR = eating

  96. TMY = darkness (either in colour or lack of light)

  97. TMYN = black

  98. TNR = hold

  99. TRV = grass

  100. TRVN = green

  101. SGN = tell

  102. TGN = day

  103. TMP = time

  104. UTLT = use

  105. YKT = jacket

  106. YRN = daytime, day

  107. YSS = be, is (Yeses, from Yestes as a combination of este and other similar words from a number of languages); yss words can also be replaced by the word "es", as an exception.

  108. YZK = Yuzak (name of this language)

Geographical names

Following is the list of names of geographical areas.

Add -land to name the government of some area.

Add -k to name a language of some region.

Add -yan to name a nation/people of some region.

Those suffixes do not count into the syllable count when discussing stress.

Without suffixes, the area refers to the area it names - be it a country, or whatever. For example, "Norge" is "Norway" as the land of Norway. "Norgestan" is the "state of Norway", as the Kingdom of Norway. "Norgek" is "Norwegian". "Norgekes" are the "languages of Norway", like Norwegian and Sami languages. "Norgeyan" is "Norwegian". "Norgeyanes" is "Norwegians".

  1. posito = geographical area / place/ ...

  2. Yuza = combination of all places where humans have a notable effect

  1. planeto = planet

  2. Geya = Earth

  1. kontinento = continent

  2. Era = Europe

  3. Asya = Asia

  4. Afro = Africa

  5. Kaya = Australia

  6. Ayopola = Antarctica

  7. Ayenya = South America

  8. Eyenya = Central America

  9. Oyenya = North America

  10. Latenya = Latin America

  11. Angenya = Angloamerica

  12. Enya = America

  13. Erasya = Eurasia

  14. Trikontinentas = Tricontinentale (Latin America, Asia, Africa)

Below are some names for areas of certain countries and their territories. We attempt to conform to the local name for a country. They do not yet have the -land suffix attached!!!

  1. governara = state (de facto state, used generally)

  2. Abakaza = Abkhazia

  3. Afgana = Afghanistan

  4. Siperia = Albania

  5. Alayazer = Algeria

  6. Samoya de Enya = American Samoa

  7. Andora = Andorra

  8. Angola = Angola

  9. Anguyila = Anguilla

  10. Antiguya et Barbuda = Antigua and Barbuda

  11. Argentina = Argentina

  12. Haya = Armenia

  13. Artsak = Artsakh

  14. Aruba = Aruba

  15. Kaya = Australia

  16. Ozaray = Austria (east, reich)

  17. Azarabaja = Azerbaijan

  18. Bayama = Bahamas

  19. Alabayara = Bahrain

  20. Banglada = Bangladesh

  21. Barabada = Barbados

  22. Belayarus = Belarus

  23. Belgiya = Belguim

  24. Belize = Belize

  25. Benina = Beinin

  26. Beremuda = Bermudas

  27. Butana = Buthan

  28. Boliviya = Bolivia

  29. Bosana et Herzegovina = Bosnia and Herzegovina

  30. Botasafana = Botswana

  31. Brasiliya = Brazil

  32. Bruneyi = Brunei

  33. Bulgara = Bulgaria

  34. Burkina Faso = Burkina Faso

  35. Burundi = Burundi

  36. Kamapusa = Cambodia

  37. Kamerun = Cameroon

  38. Kanada = Canada

  39. Kabo Verde = Cape Verde

  40. Kaymana = Cayman Islands

  41. Repebalik Eksezafro = Central African Republic

  42. Tahad = Chad

  43. Kile = Chile

  44. Zonga = China

  45. Sileles de Krismati = Christmas Islands

  46. Sileles de Kokosi = Cocos Islands

  47. Kolombiya = Colombia

  48. Komori = Comoros

  49. Demekarit Repebalik Kongo =Congo (D.R.)

  50. Repebalik Kongo = Congo (Republic of)

  51. Sileles de Kuki = Cook Islands

  52. Kostarika = Costa Rica

  53. Kotedivore = Cote D'ivoire, Ivory Coast

  54. Hrvati = Croatia

  55. Kuba = Cuba

  56. Kibris = Cyprus

  57. Deska = Czechia

  58. Danamarka = Denmark

  59. Gabuti = Djibouti

  60. Dominika = Dominica

  61. Donetsk = Donetsk (People's Republic)

  62. Repebalik Dominika = Dominican Republic

  63. Oz Timor = East timor

  64. Ekadoro = Ecuador

  65. Misra = Egypt

  66. El Salvador = El Salvador

  67. Kater Gineya = Equatorial Guinea

  68. Tiginiya = Eritrea

  69. Esti = Estonia

  70. Itiyopiya = Ethiopia

  71. Sileles de Malvina = Falkland Islands

  72. Sileles de Foroya = Faroe Islands

  73. Matanitu = Fiji

  74. Suyomi = Finland

  75. Fransi = France

  76. Guyana de Fransi = French Guiana

  77. Polinesi de Fransi = French Polynesia

  78. Ay positos de Fransi = French Southern Territories

  79. Gabona = Gabon

  80. Gambi = Gambia

  81. Sakartelo = Georgia

  82. Fejmaro = Germany (Weimar)

  83. Gana = Ghana

  84. Gibralta = Gibraltar

  85. Elada = Greece

  86. Kalalita = Greenland

  87. Grenada = Grenada

  88. Guyadelope = Guadelope

  89. Gineya = Guinea

  90. Gineya-Bisay = Guinea-Bissau

  91. Guyana = Guyana

  92. Yayiti = Haiti

  93. Marojot Rinido= Holy See (Vatican) ("deatly shit") (no offense lmao)

  94. Ondura = Honduras

  95. Ksiyang = Hong Kong

  96. Magiyaro = Hungary

  97. Islandi = Iceland

  98. Barati = India

  99. Indonezi = Indonesia

  100. Irani = Iran

  101. Aliraki = Iraq

  102. Ayre = Ireland

  103. Yizrayel = Israel

  104. Itali = Italy

  105. Yamayka = Jamaica

  106. Nipon = Japan

  107. Alurdu = Jordan

  108. Kazaki = Kazakhstan

  109. Keniya = Kenya

  110. Kiribati = Kiribati

  111. Koson, Oy Kori = Korea (North)

  112. Naman, Ay Kori = Korea (South)

  113. Kosova = Kosovo

  114. Kurdi = Kurdistan (Warning! Kurdistan would refer to Iraq Kurdish Gov't!)

  115. Alkuyat = Kuwait

  116. Kirgi = Kyrgyzstan

  117. Layo = Laos

  118. Lativa = Latvia

  119. Lubano = Lebanon

  120. Lesoto = Lesotho

  121. Liberi = Liberia

  122. Libiya = Libya (Use Eng. Abbriv. for warring sides - GNA,...)

  123. Liyentayn = Liechenstein

  124. Lituva = Lithuania

  125. Luhansk = Luhansk (People's Republic)

  126. Lezemburg = Luxemburg

  127. Omen = Macau

  128. Madaga = Madagascar

  129. Malafi = Malawi

  130. Malasiya = Malaysa

  131. Rayaye = Maldives

  132. Mali = Mali

  133. Malta = Malta

  134. Sileles de Majeli

  135. Martinike = Martinique

  136. Muritaniya = Mauritania

  137. Maritus = Mauritus

  138. Mayote = Mayotte

  139. Meksika = Mexico

  140. Mikroneziya = Micronesia

  141. Moldoya = Moldova

  142. Monako = Monako

  143. Mongoli = Mongolia

  144. Gora = Montenegro

  145. Monterat = Montserrat

  146. Magribi = Morocco

  147. Mosambike = Mozambique

  148. Mayama = Myanmar

  149. Namibiya = Namibia

  150. Nayuru = Nauru

  151. Nepalo = Nepal

  152. Neder = Netherlands

  153. Antile de Neder = Netherlands Antilles

  154. Post Kaledoni = New Caledonia

  155. Ateyara = New Zealand

  156. Nikaraguya = Nicaragua

  157. Nigero = Niger

  158. Nigeriya = Nigeria

  159. Niyuye = Niue

  160. Makedoni, Oy Makedoni = Macedonia, North Macedonia

  161. Sileles de Oy Mariyana = Northern Mariana Islands

  162. Norge = Norway

  163. Umana = Oman

  164. Paki = Pakistan

  165. Belayu = Palau

  166. Filastin = Palestine

  167. Panama = Panama

  168. Papua Post Gini = Papua New Guinea

  169. Paragu = Paraguay

  170. Peru = Peru

  171. Pilipina = Phillipines

  172. Silel de Pitcayri = Pitcairn Island

  173. Polska = Poland

  174. Portuga = Portugal

  175. Puyerto Rico = Puerto Rico

  176. Katar = Qatar

  177. Silel de Reyuniyon = Reunion Island

  178. Romani = Romania

  179. Rosiya = Russia

  180. Royafa = Rojava

  181. Randa = Rwanda

  182. Kits et Nefis = Saint Kitts and Nevis

  183. Luciya = Saint Lucia

  184. Vincent et Grenades = Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

  185. Samoya = Samoa

  186. Marino = San Marino

  187. Tome et Principe = Sao Tome and Principe

  188. Menirek de Arabi = Saudi Arabia

  189. Mareyo = Sealand

  190. Senegali = Senegal

  191. Serbi = Serbia

  192. Seyeles = Seychelles

  193. Siyera Leyon = Sierra Leone

  194. Singapur = Singapur

  195. Sloveno = Slovakia

  196. Sileles de Solomon = Solomon Islands

  197. Somaliya = Somalia

  198. Ay Osetiya = South Ossetia

  199. Repebilek Ay Afro = South African Republic

  200. Ay Sudan = South Sudan

  201. Espani = Spain

  202. Sri Lanka = Sri Lanka

  203. Sudano = Sudan

  204. Surinami = Suriname

  205. Esfatini = eSwatini, ESwatini, Swaziland

  206. Sfergi = Sweden

  207. Suyise = Switzerland

  208. Suriya = Syria (Use Eng. abbrev. for warring factions - SAR,...)

  209. Tayfan = Taiwan

  210. Tosiki = Tajikistan

  211. Tansani = Tanzania

  212. Tayi = Thailand

  213. Tigra = Tigray

  214. Etadnester(o) = Transnistria, Pridnestrovia

  215. Bodo = Tibet

  216. Oz Timoro = Timor-Leste (East Timor)

  217. Togo = Togo

  218. Tokelayu = Tokelayu

  219. Tonga = Tonga

  220. Trinidad et Tobago = Trinidad and Tobago

  221. Tunisi = Tunisia

  222. Turkiye = Turkey

  223. Turkmeni = Turkmenistan

  224. Sileles de Turkes et Kaykos = Turks and Caicos Islands

  225. Tufalu = Tuvalu

  226. Uganda = Uganda

  227. Ukrayina = Ukraine

  228. Siyez de Serikeres de Arabi = United Arab Emirates

  229. Sayiz Menirek = United Kingdom

  230. Siyez de Serikeres de Enya = United States of America

  231. Uruguyay = Uruguay

  232. Ubeki = Uzbekistan

  233. Fanuyatu = Vanuatu

  234. Fenesuyela = Venezuela

  235. Fyetnam = Vietnam

  236. Sileles de Virgin (de SM) = Virgin Islands (of the UK)

  237. Sileles de Virgin (de SSE) = Virgin Islands (of the USA)

  238. Sileles de Falis et Futuna = Wallis and Futuna Islands

  239. Az Sayari = Western Sahara

  240. Yaman = Yemen

  241. Zambiya = Zambia

  242. Zapati = Zapatista

  243. Zimbabe = Zimbabwe

  1. Sayari = Sahara

  2. Lefanta = Levant

  3. Oyopola = Arctic

  4. Oyopiles(o) = North Pole

  5. Ayopoles(o) = South Pole


  1. voydo = zero

  2. voydore, te, nu = one

  3. dufo = two

  4. tri = three

  5. fire = four

  6. penta = five

  7. penu = six

  8. pedufo = seven

  9. petri = eight

  10. pefire = nine

  11. unore, tere, deka = ten

  12. denu = eleven

  13. dedufo = twelve

  14. detri = thirteen

  15. defire = fourteen

  16. depenta = fifteen

  17. depenu = sixteen

  18. depedufo = seventeen

  19. depetri = eighteen

  20. depefire = nineteen

  21. dufode = twenty

  22. dufodenu = twenty-one

  23. dufodedufo = twenty-two

  24. dufodepetri = twenty-eight

  25. tride = thirty

  26. firede = fourty

  27. pentade = fifty

  28. penude = sixty

  29. pedufode = seventy

  30. petrifotri = eighty

  31. pefirede = ninety

  32. pefiredepetri = ninety-eight

  33. pefiredepefire = ninety-nine

  34. dufore, terere, cento = hundred

  35. dufocento = two hundred

  36. dufocentodufodefudo = two hundred twenty-two

  37. penucentopetridepefire = 689

  38. pefirecentopefiredepefire = 999

  39. trire, tererere, kilo = 1'000

  40. trire penucentopetridepefire = 1'689

  41. pedufo-trire penucentopetridepefire = 7'689

  42. firere, terererere = 10^4 = 10'000

  43. pentare, tererererere = 10^5 = 100'000

  44. peunore, terererererere = 10^6 = 1'000'000 = one million

  45. pedufore = 10^7 = 10'000'000

  46. pefirere = 10^9 = 1'000'000'000 = one billion

  47. dedufore = 10^12 = 1'000'000'000'000 = one trillion

  48. tridepedufore = 10^37 = ten undecillion

  49. centopenudepefirere = 10^169 = ten quattuorsexagintillion

  50. pedufo-dedufere = 7*10^12 = 7'000'000'000'000 = seven trillion

  51. penu-dedufere tri-denure = 6*10^12+3*10^11 = 6'300'000'000'000 = six trillion three hundred billion

  52. nu kuru dufo penta = 1.25

  53. voyd kuru petri perioda tri fire = 0.8343434...

  54. mayn dufo = -2

  55. pentagas = 5.

Explanation of numbers. All you really have to remember is: voyd, nu, dufo, tri, fire, penta. It is good to also remember: deka, de, cento, re, kilo, perioda, kuru.

After zero (voyd), first five numbers are nu, dufo, tri, furi, penta. To go from six to nine, you subtract 5 from the targeted number and add prefix pe-. For example, to get eight, you take three, and add prefix pe- (to get petri, take tri, add pe-; you got petri).

Ten is deka. To go from eleven to nineteen, take the last digit of the number you want, and add prefix de-. For example: to form sixteen, take six, and add prefix de- (to get depenu, take penu, add pe-; you got depenu).

Whenever discussing the two-digit cluster at the end of a numeral, the last digit has the same representation independent of the second-to-last changing. What this means is, that in 5, 15, 25, 35, the 5 at the end has the same spelling and pronunciation each time. In English, 5 and 15 are exceptions.

To change ten into twenty, or in a multiple of ten, put a numeral between two and nine in front of "de". For example, while "deka" is ten, "dufode" is twenty, "trifode" is thirty and "pefirede" is ninety.

You can also put a one-digit numeral at the end of a multiple of ten, thus forming any number to 99. For example, "depedufo" is 17, "petridedufo" is 82.
 One hundred is cento. Add a number between two and nine as a prefix to the "cento" to tell how many hundred of something you are talking about: "tricento" is three hundred, "pedufo" is seven hundred.

Add a two-digit number at the end of the "_cento" to form a three digit number: "centodenu" is 111, "pedufocentopetridepenta" is 785.

1'000 is kilo.

All numbers up to including 1'000 (one thousand) have no spaces. All clusters of digits, which represent a number up to including 1'000 (one thousand) have no spaces. Higher up, there is a space between every order of magnitude of the decimal system.

You can represent any exponent of 10 by saying "te" and adding as many "re"s as high as the exponent is. For example, one is "te", ten is "tere", one hundred is "terere", one thousand is "tererere". This system is only used for numbers which are exponents of 10 and may not be used if there is any other digit than just 1 followed by zeros. This system becomes obsolete around 10^6.
Any exponent of 10 can also be named by adding "re" at the end of a number that is between zero and 1'000. For example, 10^20 may be named dufodere. This system is much more expandable, as it can reach 10^999. However, we may sometimes need a more precise number.
 Say we want 7*10^20. We already know how to say 10^20: "dufodere". To say 7*10^20, we simply need to add (pedufo-)- at the beggining, including the "-". Thus, 7*10^20 may be easily represented as pedufo-dufodere.

However, sometimes, not even that is enough precision. Say we want to express 10'001 with this system. That number is "firere nu".

730'258 would thus be written as: "pedufo-pentare tri-firere dufocentopentodepetri". In english, "seven hundred thirty thousand two hundred fifty eight".

Decimals can be expressed by naming the decimal point "kuru" and then listing all decimal digits. Periods (repeating last digits) are expressed by first listing all digits that do not repeat, saying "perioda", and then listing digits which do repeat. For example, 0.55 is "voyd kuru penta penta", while 7.23585858585858… is "pedufo kurku dufo tri perioda penta petri".

You can express negativity of a number by adding a "mayn" in the beginning, separated from the rest of a numeral with a space. For example, -2 is "mayn dufo".

One can express ordinal numbers by assigning "-gas" at the end of the word, for example "dekagas" means tenth, "centopedufodepetrigas" means 178th.

I concur that taking a look solely at powers of ten does not make it seem like Yazuk shortens them much relative to English. However, taking a look at a more precise number, such as 730'258, we could finally see the benefit.

Base 10 is used because it is used. I'd much prefer base 6, but this is an international auxiliary language for Indo-Europeans, not an artistic language.

Glossary of additional words which do not follow the root system (particles, pronouns etc.) (except for Geographical names, numerals)

  1. es = is/are/be/… (a replacement for the yss consonant group for is/to be; "es" should not be changed to adapt to word formation; es is valid for all numbers, times etc.) (can supplement any time of es)

  2. esel = had been

  3. eseg = was/were

  4. eser = is/are/be/...

  5. eses = will be

  6. eseses = will be even later

  1. de = of

  2. dede = about

  3. nyede / nyedede = regardless of, not regarding

  1. kemeye = than

  1. aka = also known as, aka

  1. on = on

  2. of = off

  1. mit = with

  1. ala = or

  1. la = this/that/those/these/…

  2. nyela = other

  1. si = yes

  2. nye/nyet/net = no/not

  1. fer = and (connecting two sentences, not for enumeration)

  2. alt = so, therefore, thereafter, to, for (between sentences)

  3. seba, vey = because

  4. past, proto = before, old

  5. pest = when, as (time), whenever, current

  6. post = after, new

  7. set = wherever

  8. nyeset = away from

  9. nyaf = outside of, out of

  10. af = inside, into

  11. a = but

  12. skoro = however, just like

  13. vo = whoever

  14. aga = that

  15. fer = which/who (I want that which…)

  16. ay = below, down, south

  17. ey = at same height

  18. oy = above, up, north, on

  19. aks = in front of, forward

  20. eks = not in front of nor behind

  21. oks = behind of, backwards

  22. az = left of, left, west

  23. ez = not left nor right of (in same direction as), towards

  24. oz = right of, right, east

  25. tay = high, deep

  26. lay = low, shallow

  27. taks = long

  28. laks = short

  29. taz = wide

  30. laz = narrow

  31. gegen = against

  32. tayakaz = big

  33. layakaz = small

  1. oko = if

  1. ur = clock/watch/…, "hour" in "it's 13 hours 10", meaning "it's 13:10 o'clock".

  1. ales = all

  1. per = according to

  1. et = and (enumeration, between words, never connecting sentences)

  1. gu = for (between words, never connecting sentences)

  1. nulit = No chance!, Never!

  2. dufolit = Most probably not.

  3. trilit = Probably not.

  4. firelit = Possibly so.

  5. penulit = May be or may not be, circa 50% chance.

  6. pedufolit = The chances are solid.

  7. petrilit = Probably so.

  8. pefirelit = Most probably yes.

  9. dekalit = Sure!, Absolutely!, ...

  1. ya = I

  2. ye = singular you

  3. yi = singular they/he/xe/it/he/… Neo-pronouns are permitted.

  1. yat = two of us

  2. yet = two of you

  3. yit = two of them/these/those

  1. yas = we

  2. yes = plural you

  3. yis = plural they

  1. yana = me/myself

  2. yena = you/yourself

  3. yina = singular them/themself/him/himself/her/herself/xem/xemself/it/… Neopronouns are permitted.

  1. yata = referring to doing so to two of us/referring to doing so to two of ourself

  2. yeta = referring to doing so to two of you/referring to doing so to two of yourself

  3. yita = referring to doing something to two of them/themselves/these/those

  1. yasa = us/ourself

  2. yesa = you (we must read "yesna")

  3. yisa = them/those/these

  1. yaro = my/mine

  2. yero = your/yours

  3. yiro = singular their/theirs/xir/xirs/it/its/his/… Neo-pronouns are permitted.

  1. yato = of the two of us

  2. yeto = of the two of you

  3. yito = of the two of them/these/those

  1. yaso = our/ours

  2. yeso = of a plural of you

  3. yiso = of a plural of them

Explaining the pronouns

Why is there such a great number of pronouns (27)? Do not worry; they are structured! All you will need to remember is: Ya, AEI, t, s, na, ro.

All pronouns begin with "y". This is followed by a letter A, E or I, depending on the person; the first vowel in the latin alphabet is A, thereby A signifies first person; "ya" is "I". Similarly, E and I will make "ya" and "ye", which mean "you" and "they/she/xe/her/...". Thereby we have formed "ya, ye, yi" for "I, you, they/she/he/it/…".

We can transform a pronoun into dual, referring to two people or objects. Such a form can be replaced by a plural, but if wish or need be, one can use the dual version. The dual's suffix is -t. This means, "yat" is "two of us"; "yet" is "two of you". We can also transform a pronoun into plural. The plural suffix is -s. This means, "yas" is "we"; "yes" is plural "you".

Additionally, we can transform pronouns into objective form or reflexive form by adding the suffix -na (or -a after consonant)s. This makes "yana" mean "me/myself" and makes "yasa" mean "us/ourselves".

Furthermore, we can transform pronouns into possessive pronouns or possessive adjectives by adding the suffix -ro (or -o after consonants). This makes "yaro" mean "my/mine" and makes "yaso" mean "our/ours".

Thus, we were able to create 27 pronouns: three persons (1., 2., 3.), three numeral forms (singular, dual, dual-plural) and three forms (subjective, objective-reflexive and possessive adjective-pronoun).

Thereby, pronouns of the Yuzak language are: ya, ye, yi, yat, yet, yit, yas, yes, yis, yana, yena, yina, yata, yeta, yita, yasa, yesa, yisa, yaro, yero, yiro, yato, yeto, yito, yaso, yeso, yiso.

Pronouns of third person can also be used to hint at that which is not in a grammatical person; "this" day can be translated as "yina" tigen..


General orthography

For general purposes, latin script, as defined in the IPA table(s) in the phonetics section, is used.

Cyrillic orthography

Cyrillic orthography can as well be used, with respective transliterations:

А = A

Е = E

И = I

О = O

У = U

М = M

Н = N

Б = B

П = P

Д = D

Т = T

Г = G

К = K

С = S, Z, C

Ф = F

Л = L

Й = J, Y

Р = R

An example of this orthography would go as follows.

I like Yuzak. = Ya megeran Yuzak. = Йа мегеран Йусак.

Yuzak is a good language. = Yuzak es sabir lineg. = Йузак ес сабир линег.

Pan-Indo-European Orthography

To allow for communication, the following transcription is possible as well.

This orthography is a combination of Latin script, Cyrillic and Nagari.


Basic word order

Basic word order is SVO; that is, Subject-Verb-Object. For example, "I ate it" would translate to Yuzak as "Ya tebegar yina", and not the other way around.

The basic negation can be placed at some place in a sentence except at the end.

Adjectives come before what they modify (they can modify more than nouns, as they can also function as adverbs).


The basic negation can be placed at some place in a sentence except at the end. Negations refute everything stated in the following line until the next punctuation (unlike word negations from Word Formation, it doesn't outright negate the meaning). Let us show this more precisely using examples and translations into English.

"Ya tebegar yina." = "I are it."

"Nye ya tebegar yina." = "Not me ate it." / "Someone else ate it."
 "Ya nye tebegar yina." = "I didn't eat it." (But drink it? In this sense.)

"Ya tebegar nye yina." = "I ate not that." / "I ate something else."

This, however, can become more complex as more punctuations are added. Let us again observe some examples.

"Ya es rined, seba yi es rahojot." = "I am human, because it is shitty" (yi/it refers to rined/human)

"Ya es rined, nye seba yi es rahojot." = "I am human, not because it is shitty."

"Ya es rined, seba nye yi es rahojot." = "I am human, because not it is shitty." / "I am human, because it isn't shitty."

"Ya es rined, seba yi nye es rahojot." = "I am human, because it not is shitty." (There is no good English translation of that, and it really doen't say anything logical, but the message is visible).

"Ya es rined, seba yi es nye rahojot" = "I am human, because it is not shitty." / "I am human, because it is unshitty."

"Nya Ya es rined, seba yi es rahojot." = "It is not so that I am human, because it is shitty." (it/yi refers to human/rined)

"Nya ya es rined, nye seba yi es rahojot." = "It is not so that I am human, not because it is shitty."

"Nya ya es rined, seba nye yi es rahojot." = "It is not so that I am human, because not it is shitty." / "It is not so that I am human, because it isn't shitty."

"Nya ya es rined, seba yi nye es rahojot." = "It is not so that I am human, because it not is shitty." (There is no good English translation of that, and it really doesn't say anything logical, but the message is visible).

"Nya ya es rined, seba yi es nye rahojot" = "It is not so that I am human, because it is not shitty." / "It is not so that I am human, because it is unshitty."

et cetera.
 As described in the Word Formation section of this Yuzak overview, the prefix "nye(t)-" can be put in front of words to negate them.

Advanced sentences

In most languages, we can experience formation of sentence subsets. In English, for example, one may say "my name is Lesley, thereby my name starts with an L". This sentence consists of a relative sentence and the main one… "My name is Lesley" being the main sentence, and "thereby my name starts with an L" being the dependent one.

In Yuzak, we could have said "Yuzak es facol" and "Yuzak es sabir". Combining these two means "Yuzak is easy. Yuzak is wonderful." However, if we implied that easier languages are better IAL-s, we could say "Yuzak is easy, so yuzak is wonderful". Yuzal permits just that, forming "Yuzak es facol, alt yuzak es sabir".

Yuzak does not allow for relative sentences to come first.

Most languages allow for sentences to be arranged equally as well, for example: "Yuzak is easy and yuzak is wonderful". This multi-sentence has two sentences, but none is relative. We can change the sub-sentence order without changing inner word order: "Yuzak is wonderful and yuzak is easy" is the same to "Yuzak is easy and yuzak is wonderful". Yuzak also allows this, but still requires a comma. Let us translate the English example below. "Yuzak es facil, fer Yuzak es sabir" is equivalent to "Yuzak es sabir, fer Yuzak es facil". However, the only conjunction allowed to appear between the two sentences in this case is "fer".


Prepositions come after the object and before the subject: "Chair on the floor". Between the object and the subject, there can be an adverb, which is in Yuzak simply an adjective: "Chair is firmly on the floor".


Adverbs are supplied by adjectives, or by adverbs defined in the Glossary of additional words.


Adverbs and adjectives conform to the noun in number, tense and person.


Questions requesting information are formed by replacing requested information with "ksa(r)_", where _ is an example of the figure we are looking for. R is added if the initial letter of the figure is a vowel. For example, "Yuzak es ksarahojod?" asks "What is Yuzak like, in the terms of shitty etc.?". While "Yuzak es ksaranojod?" would literally translate to "Yuzak is shitty?", it actually asks what it is like in the same category as "shitty". For example, an answer to "Yuzak es ksaranojod?" may be "Sabor."

Questions requesting confirmation are formed by simply adding "?" at the end of the sentence. For example, "Yuzak es sabor?" means "Is Yuzak wonderful?".


One can symbolise possession or belonging by putting the word "de" anywhere in a sentence. Everything on the left will be in possession of that on the right.

Left "de"-s have priority. For example, "A de B de C" means (A of B) of C, and not vice versa.


We can express current time, ex. 13:10 by saying "La es detri ur deka." This literally means, "This is thirteen hour ten."

The same format can be used for expression of any time unit.

Months are expressed by saying the word "miset" (month) and the ordinal number which month in the year it is: instead of saying "It is january", we say "La es miset nugas".

We can express dates in a year by inserting the ordinal number of whichever day in the month we are discussing. For example, 9.10. would be named "pefiregas miset dekagas". Thereby, "La es pefiregas miset dekagas" means "it is the ninth of October".

Years can be expressed by putting the word "giden", meaning "year" in front of the ordinal number representing the year. For example, "year 2020" would be "giden dufo-trira dufodegas".

"2.11.2020" would be "dufogas miset denugas giden dufo-trire dufode". The English equivalent is "The second of November of two thousand twenty".


If we wish to compare attributes of certain things, we need to define base, comparative and superlative.

Let us take the example of "sabar", meaning "good".

Base is the default position. Ex.: "sabar" = "good".

Suffix "-(r)int" symbolises comparatives. Ex.: "sabarint" = "better".

Suffix "-(r)inters" symbolizes superlatives. Ex.: "sabarinters" = "best".

We use the (r) insertion if the base word ends with a vowel; for example, if the adjective was "kala", comparative would be "kalarint" and superlative would be "kalarinters". However, such examples are very rare in Yuzak and I cannot think of any right now.

We can compare two words by saying "A is _ than B". Let us compare communism and capitalism in their goodness. "Communism is better than capitalism" would be translated into Yuzak as "Kemenilem es sabarint kemeye kepetilem."

We can present something as a superlative of its type by saying "A is the best B", where B includes but is not limited to A. Let us present Yuzak as the best language. "Yuzak is the best language." This would be translated into Yuzak as "Yuzak es saborinters de lineges".

Of course, we can focus on the superlativity of something in English: "Yuzak is the best of all languages." A version of this exists in Yuzak as well. It is "Yuzak es saborinters de ales lineges."


Translation practice

Hyder is an exceptionally good friend. = Hyder es falin sabor fimeg!

I am not exceptionally good today… = Ya nye es falin sabor yina tigen...

She is not a good human. = Yi nye es sabor rined.

Humans are ungood. = Rinedes es nyesabires.

This map is good, as it is very detailed. = La miper es sabir, seba yi es maneg datol.

I hate this language because it is ugly. = Ya nyemegenera la lineg, vey yi es nyesabir.

It is November 2nd and I am feeling bad. = La es dufoges monat denu, fer Ya es nyesabir.

This word is wonderful. = La liter es sabir.

Banat republic was nice. = Repebilek de Banat eseg banat.

Ideas of capitalism are bad. People, arise, arise! Labour is everything, workers - forward! = Segerimenes de kepetilem es nyesabares. Pipeles, oy, oy! Rebit yeseris ales, rabites pipeles, aks!

Democratic People's Republic Earth! = Demekarit Repebilek Geya de pipeles!

I am the first person who can enjoy the words of Yuzak! = Ya es nugas pipel megerat literes de Yuzak bekeran!

Communism is exceptionally nice. = kemenilem es falin sabar.

Translation practice without original



Yas es denecesires proto Geya!

Yas es remegesanes yiro remineres!

Yas es nyemiganes de sabir kirek,

yas nyemegesases de menarik kesirin!

Yas es peresases ez nyebakires pipeles,

yas es peresases ez nyekabises pipeles;

Yas et yisa denecesares ranit pipeles,

Yas pezesaves yis ez yasa.

Rabites pipeles, oy, oy, oy!

Yes pereseses gegen ranites pipeles!

Pipeles piziv ez leberites eses sarekes:

Aks! Aks! Aks! Aks! Aks!



Oyafiter et siles debegites: "Ya padarint kemeye ye!" Pipet mit yiket kemegit, pest yit debegites.

"yat ales megesat, padarint es aga fer mekesan pipet nye pesesis oy yisa yiket," peregel siles.

"Tayakaz sabor," peregil oyafiter, alt mekegin pipet gefegil kalojot padar fiter.

Post nugos fiter yaket de pipet peregis oy et ay set papat. Post pipet paravis af yaket mit ales padar. Pipet paravis af yaket de yiro padarint, pest oyafiter mekegir padarint fiter. Oyafiter mekegin padar fiter set yaket, a voydo.

Post la, siles seyegiy. Nuges reyiney es layakaz padar, fer set sabor gorok reyiney de siles, pipet mekegin yiro yekit nyeseyatar, fer neypador tenegir la yiket. Reyeniy de silel eseg garokint et garokint, fer pipel remegif yiro sider. Post, yi eseg garoyok, alt yi remefir yiro yiket, fer yi repegiz set nye reyiney de silel, alt yi kemegin nyeset girek, set di direv.

Binet kenerin, fer pider seperil.